There are 15 republics in the Soviet Union. According to the Constitution, the republics have the right to opt out of the union. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, the republics including Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Armenia, and Azerbaijan became independent.
However, the power vacuum left after the disintegration of the Soviet Union has made ethnic conflicts in some areas increasingly serious, especially in the Transcaucasian region with complex ethnic and religious components, Armenia and Azerbaijan Innagorno-Karabakh (Naka for short) and nearby areas. Disputes over the ownership of the region.
During the Soviet period, Naka (Armenians-dominated) was an autonomous prefecture under the republic of Azerbaijan. However, when the Soviet Union disintegrated, the autonomous prefecture and surrounding areas wanted to reunite with Armenia, but were rejected by the Soviet Union and Azerbaijan and later declared independence (to this day) De facto independence, regarded internationally as the territory of Azerbaijan), triggered an armed conflict between the two countries. In May 1994, under the coordination of Russia and other external forces, the two countries reached a comprehensive ceasefire agreement. However, the two sides are still arguing over the Naqqa issue, and small-scale conflicts continue.
在苏联时期，纳卡（亚美尼亚人统治）是阿塞拜疆共和国下的一个自治州。但是，当苏联解体时，自治州和周边地区想与亚美尼亚团聚，但遭到苏联和阿塞拜疆的拒绝，后来宣布独立（到今天）事实上的独立，在国际上被视为阿塞拜疆领土） ，引发了两国之间的武装冲突。 1994年5月，在俄罗斯和其他外部力量的协调下，两国达成了全面停火协议。但是，双方仍在就纳卡问题争论不休，小规模冲突仍在继续。
Today, the Naka region is a "Republic of Naka" that is not recognized internationally, with an area of about 10,000 square kilometers, a population of only 150,000, and approximately 90% of Armenians. This area dominated by Armenians has long belonged to Azerbaijan. How did this administrative division come from, and how did it become the knot of the two sides?
Transcaucasus region, that is, the southern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, where towering mountains serve as barriers. The geographical location is important and can be used as a strategic barrier. The Transcaucasus region has been the target of great powers since ancient times.
Although the Armenians formed their own nation for a long time, due to their small population and weak strength, they were conquered by the Persians in the early days and became an administrative region of the ancient Persian Empire.
In 331 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia led the Eastern Expedition, Persia was gradually defeated, and Armenia became part of the Macedonian Empire. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Empire was divided into three parts, of which the Armenian region was assigned to Seleucid.
In 198 BC, the Romans invaded the ancient kingdom of Seleucid. In 190 BC, during the confrontation between Rome and Seleucid, the Armenians declared independence and established the Kingdom of Armenia. In the heyday of the Kingdom of Armenia, the territory included a vast area from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
But the glory of the Armenian Kingdom did not last long. After that, the Romans and Persia fought for the Transcaucasus region for up to two centuries. Armenia was weak and unable to resist foreign invasion. The west became the protectorate of Rome, and the east became the sphere of influence of the Persians.
At that time, Persians believed in Zoroastrianism, and the Persians, who had gained the right to rule most of Armenia, forced the Armenians to convert to Zoroastrianism. In order not to be assimilated, Armenia declared Christianity as the state religion in 301 AD and became the first Christian country in the world. Since then, Christianity has taken root in the land of Armenia.
Compared with the Armenian nation, the formation of the Azerbaijani nation is relatively late. In the area along the coast of the Caspian Sea in the eastern part of the Transcaucasus, the leaked natural gas burned in the fire, forming a flame similar to the flame mountain. In Persia, where Zoroastrianism prevails, fire is regarded as a god, and the name of the place is named Azerbaijan, the land blessed by fire.
The local residents of Azerbaijan were influenced by Persian culture and believed in Zoroastrianism. The ancient Azerbaijani language was produced on the basis of the Persian language, which laid the foundation for the formation of the Azerbaijani nation.
In the 7th century AD, the Arabs established an empire and began to expand and spread Islam. In 663 AD, the Persian region was occupied. Under the influence of the Arabs, the Persians and the Azerbaijanis
Converted to Islam.
After the rise of the Arab Empire, most ethnic groups in West Asia, North Africa, and the Caucasus converted to Islam, with the exception of Armenians. After the fall of the Arab Empire, the later Persian Safa Dynasty, Ottoman Empire and other Islamic forces frequently invaded Armenia. By the 16th century, Armenia was divided by Ottoman and Persia.
Among them, "East Armenia" including the Naka region was occupied by Persia, and the Naka region was incorporated into a province of Persia. The Ottomans occupied western Armenia on the Black Sea coast.
Both Persia and Ottoman are Islamic countries, so the Armenians who believe in Christianity have become the thorns of the Islamic forces. At that time, Azerbaijanis mainly lived in the plains along the coast of the Caspian Sea, while Armenians mainly lived in the mountains of the Caucasus. In order to suppress the pagan Armenians, Persia encouraged Azerbaijanis who also believed in Islam to migrate to the western mountains.
After hundreds of years of migration, the Azerbaijanis gradually replaced the Armenians and became the main ethnic group in the transition zone from the plain to the mountain (Naka region).
Beginning in the 17th century, a new player from a major power-Tsarist Russia was added to the southern foot of the Caucasus Mountains. In order to find warm estuary and mountains as a national security barrier, Tsarist Russia began to expand south.
At that time, the Black Sea was the inner sea of the Ottoman Empire, and the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea were the barriers of the Persian Empire against the invasion of northern forces. The expansion of Tsarist Russia in this area will inevitably lead to war with the two major Islamic powers of Ottoman and Persia.
In order to capture the Black Sea, Tsarist Russia and Ottoman fought the "Russian-Turkish War" for more than two centuries. At the beginning of the 19th century, after six Russian-Turkish wars, Tsarist Russia captured the Crimean Peninsula in the northern Black Sea and Georgia in the Caucasus.
In order to capture the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea, the "Russian-Polish War" broke out between Tsarist Russia and Persia. The weak Persian Empire was unable to resist, and signed the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and the Treaty of Turkmenistan (1825) with Tsarist Russia, and was forced to convert East Armenia and North Azerbaijan (the prototype of the state of Azerbaijan today) Ceded to Tsarist Russia.
After establishing the rule of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, Tsarist Russia began to implement a policy of ethnic separation. Tsarist Russia believes in Christianity, so it chooses to support Armenians who believe in Christianity and suppress Azerbaijanis who believe in Islam.
At that time, after hundreds of years of emigration, the Naka area had become a major gathering area for Azerbaijanis, but Tsarist Russia encouraged Armenians to move here in large numbers. With the support of Tsarist Russia, they aggressively expelled the Azerbaijanis. Therefore, the ethnic composition of the Naka region has been reversed once again, and Armenians who "go home" gradually replaced the Azerbaijanis and became the main ethnic group in the region.
From the perspective of Armenians, this area has been inhabited by Armenians since ancient times, while Azerbaijanis believe that they have lived here for hundreds of years. Armenians have long since abandoned it, and Azerbaijanis are the masters of this place. This is the source of the conflict between the two nations.
Although Tsarist Russia acquired a large amount of territory through many expansions, the class contradiction between serf owners and serfs was sharp due to the preservation of feudal serfdom. The ethnic and religious elements in Saudi Russia are complex, leading to sharp ethnic and religious contradictions.
With class contradictions, ethnic contradictions and religious contradictions intertwined, revolutions broke out in tsarist Russia one after another. In 1904, in order to compete for the warm port of Dalian Port in Northeast China and Lushun, a war broke out between Russia and Japan, and Japan eventually defeated Tsarist Russia.
The defeat in the war intensified social contradictions in Saudi Russia. The revolution broke out in 1905 and people in the Caucasus also started a vigorous independence movement, but they were all suppressed by Tsarist Russia. In 1914, World War I broke out, and Tsarist Russia joined the Allied Powers to fight. The prolonged war caused the economy to face collapse, and social conflicts intensified again. The February Revolution broke out in Tsarist Russia in February 1917, which overthrew the Tsar. Then in the October Revolution, Soviet power was established and the first socialist country was established.
战争的失败加剧了沙特俄罗斯的社会矛盾。 1905年革命爆发，高加索地区的人民也发起了激烈的独立运动，但他们都被沙皇俄国压制。 1914年，第一次世界大战爆发，沙皇俄国加入了盟军进行战斗。旷日持久的战争使经济面临崩溃，社会矛盾再次加剧。二月革命于1917年2月在沙皇俄国爆发，推翻了沙皇。然后在十月革命中，建立了苏联力量，并建立了第一个社会主义国家。
The regime at that time was facing serious difficulties. The domestic feudal forces and the bourgeoisie furiously counterattacked with the support of the West, and they faced fighting against Germany and Ottoman abroad. In order to withdraw from the war, in January 1918, the new Soviet regime signed the "Brest Peace Treaty" with the Allied Powers, recognizing the independence of the three Transcaucasian countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
Later, when the defeat of the Allies was determined, the three Transcaucasian countries established Soviet power with the "help" of Soviet Russia. In 1922, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia joined the Soviet Union as republics.
The ethnic and religious composition of the Transcaucasus region is complicated. After the three countries joined the Soviet Union, the locals originally hoped that the Soviet Union could properly solve this problem, but the Soviet Union has intensified ethnic conflicts.
During the period of Tsarist Russia, the residents of the Naka region have changed from mainly Azerbaijanis to mainly Armenians, and the local residents hope to return to Armenia. In 1921, the Soviet authorities assigned the Naka region to Armenia on the grounds of national self-determination. However, considering that the southwestern part of the Soviet Union faces Islamic forces such as Turkey, assigning Naqa to Armenia will inevitably bury the instability in the border area.
Out of the need to appease Islamic forces and stabilize the southern border, the Armenians became victims of the game of great powers due to their small numbers. In 1923, the Soviet Union divided the administrative regions and assigned the Naka region to Azerbaijan, becoming an autonomous prefecture of the "Azerbaijan Soviet Republic". This division aroused strong dissatisfaction among the local Armenians and paved the way for the dispute between the two countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
In the early days of the founding of the Soviet Union, in front of the powerful Soviet authorities, the Asian-African conflict was only temporarily put on hold, but it was never really resolved. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union fell into an economic crisis. Under the impact of the economic crisis, various social crises in the country have also surfaced. In the Transcaucasus region, Yaa clashed over the ownership of the Innaka region.
In February 1988, the government of the Naka Autonomous Prefecture requested that the local residents be placed under Armenian jurisdiction on the grounds that Armenians constitute a majority. Armenia agreed to this request, but it angered Azerbaijan.
At this time the Soviet Union was about to fall apart and was unable to handle the conflict between Asia and Afghanistan. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated and Armenia and Azerbaijan became independent successively. However, the power vacuum left by the disintegration has plunged Transcaucasus, a region with a complex ethnic composition, into turmoil.
With the declaration of independence of the Naka region, the Naka issue has also escalated from conflict to war. It was not until May 12, 1994 that the two sides reached a fragile ceasefire agreement under international mediation, but the hostility between them has not been eliminated.
After the war, the Naka region became neither the territory of Armenia nor the territory of Azerbaijan, but a de facto independent republic was established.
The residents of Naka are mainly Armenians, and the supporting force behind independence is Armenia. After the war, Armenian troops were still stationed in the Naka region, and the two places used the same currency. Because Armenia is weak in strength and surrounded by Islamic countries, the geological environment is not conducive to recognizing the independence of the Naka Republic, so Armenia chose to default.
From the perspective of Azerbaijan, although the Naka region is still regarded as the territory of Azerbaijan in the world, Azerbaijan has lost actual control over the area. The independence of Naka has undermined the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, and Azerbaijan has never given up on taking it back Efforts in the Naka region.
Military wars will bring unacceptable costs to both sides. It is no longer possible for the two countries to resort to war. However, the existence of the Naqqa issue has led to the fact that the two countries are still hostile in various fields. The future of Nakka has become the two countries. Dead knot.
Until today, the two countries have not established diplomatic relations, the border between the two countries is still closed, and foreign tourists cannot enter another country from one country. The degree of hostility is not only in the economic and political fields, but even more so in the cultural and sports fields. For example, Armenian athletes cannot travel to Azerbaijan to compete.
The state of "no war or peace" between Asia and Afghanistan has not only affected the normalization of relations between the two countries, but also affected the peace and stability of the entire Transcaucasus region.