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亚博最新消息_纳卡冲突:纳卡地区为什么会成为亚美尼亚和阿塞拜疆的死结?



发布日期:2021-03-18 00:14:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

There are 15 republics in the Soviet Union. According to the Constitution, the republics have the right to opt out of the union. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, the republics including Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Armenia, and Azerbaijan became independent.

苏联有15个共和国。根据《宪法》,共和国有权选择退出联盟。 1991年苏联解体后,哈萨克斯坦,乌克兰,亚美尼亚和阿塞拜疆等共和国成为独立国家。

However, the power vacuum left after the disintegration of the Soviet Union has made ethnic conflicts in some areas increasingly serious, especially in the Transcaucasian region with complex ethnic and religious components, Armenia and Azerbaijan Innagorno-Karabakh (Naka for short) and nearby areas. Disputes over the ownership of the region.

但是,苏联解体后留下的权力真空使某些地区的种族冲突日益严重,特别是在具有复杂的民族和宗教成分的跨高加索地区,亚美尼亚和阿塞拜疆Innagorno-Karabakh(简称纳卡)及附近地区。对该地区的所有权存在争议。

During the Soviet period, Naka (Armenians-dominated) was an autonomous prefecture under the republic of Azerbaijan. However, when the Soviet Union disintegrated, the autonomous prefecture and surrounding areas wanted to reunite with Armenia, but were rejected by the Soviet Union and Azerbaijan and later declared independence (to this day) De facto independence, regarded internationally as the territory of Azerbaijan), triggered an armed conflict between the two countries. In May 1994, under the coordination of Russia and other external forces, the two countries reached a comprehensive ceasefire agreement. However, the two sides are still arguing over the Naqqa issue, and small-scale conflicts continue.

在苏联时期,纳卡(亚美尼亚人统治)是阿塞拜疆共和国下的一个自治州。但是,当苏联解体时,自治州和周边地区想与亚美尼亚团聚,但遭到苏联和阿塞拜疆的拒绝,后来宣布独立(到今天)事实上的独立,在国际上被视为阿塞拜疆领土) ,引发了两国之间的武装冲突。 1994年5月,在俄罗斯和其他外部力量的协调下,两国达成了全面停火协议。但是,双方仍在就纳卡问题争论不休,小规模冲突仍在继续。

Today, the Naka region is a "Republic of Naka" that is not recognized internationally, with an area of ​​about 10,000 square kilometers, a population of only 150,000, and approximately 90% of Armenians. This area dominated by Armenians has long belonged to Azerbaijan. How did this administrative division come from, and how did it become the knot of the two sides?

如今,纳卡地区已成为国际公认的``纳卡共和国'',面积约10,000平方公里,人口只有15万,约90%的亚美尼亚人。亚美尼亚人统治的这一地区长期以来一直属于阿塞拜疆。这个行政区划是如何产生的,如何成为双方的纽带?

Transcaucasus region, that is, the southern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, where towering mountains serve as barriers. The geographical location is important and can be used as a strategic barrier. The Transcaucasus region has been the target of great powers since ancient times.

Transcaucasus地区,即高加索山脉的南部山麓,高耸的山脉成为屏障。地理位置很重要,可以用作战略障碍。自古以来,高加索地区一直是大国的目标。

Although the Armenians formed their own nation for a long time, due to their small population and weak strength, they were conquered by the Persians in the early days and became an administrative region of the ancient Persian Empire.

尽管亚美尼亚人由于人口少,实力薄弱而长期组建自己的国家,但在早期,他们就被波斯人征服,成为古代波斯帝国的行政区域。

In 331 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia led the Eastern Expedition, Persia was gradually defeated, and Armenia became part of the Macedonian Empire. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Empire was divided into three parts, of which the Armenian region was assigned to Seleucid.

公元前331年,马其顿的亚历山大大帝领导了东方探险队,波斯逐渐被击败,亚美尼亚成为马其顿帝国的一部分。亚历山大大帝(Alexander)逝世后,马其顿帝国分为三部分,其中亚美尼亚地区归属塞琉古(Seleucid)。

In 198 BC, the Romans invaded the ancient kingdom of Seleucid. In 190 BC, during the confrontation between Rome and Seleucid, the Armenians declared independence and established the Kingdom of Armenia. In the heyday of the Kingdom of Armenia, the territory included a vast area from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

公元前198年,罗马人入侵了塞琉古(Seleucid)古代王国。公元前190年,在罗马与塞卢西德之间的对抗中,亚美尼亚人宣布独立并建立了亚美尼亚王国。在亚美尼亚王国的鼎盛时期,该领土包括从里海到地中海的广阔地区。

But the glory of the Armenian Kingdom did not last long. After that, the Romans and Persia fought for the Transcaucasus region for up to two centuries. Armenia was weak and unable to resist foreign invasion. The west became the protectorate of Rome, and the east became the sphere of influence of the Persians.

但是,亚美尼亚王国的荣耀并没有持续很长时间。在那之后,罗马人和波斯人为高加索地区奋斗了长达两个世纪。亚美尼亚软弱无力,无法抵抗外国入侵。西方成为罗马的保护国,东方成为波斯人的势力范围。

At that time, Persians believed in Zoroastrianism, and the Persians, who had gained the right to rule most of Armenia, forced the Armenians to convert to Zoroastrianism. In order not to be assimilated, Armenia declared Christianity as the state religion in 301 AD and became the first Christian country in the world. Since then, Christianity has taken root in the land of Armenia.

当时,波斯人信仰琐罗亚斯德教,而拥有统治亚美尼亚大部分地区的权利的波斯人则迫使亚美尼亚人convert依了琐罗亚斯德教。为了不被同化,亚美尼亚在公元301年宣布基督教为国教,并成为世界上第一个基督教国家。从那时起,基督教在亚美尼亚的土地上扎根。

Compared with the Armenian nation, the formation of the Azerbaijani nation is relatively late. In the area along the coast of the Caspian Sea in the eastern part of the Transcaucasus, the leaked natural gas burned in the fire, forming a flame similar to the flame mountain. In Persia, where Zoroastrianism prevails, fire is regarded as a god, and the name of the place is named Azerbaijan, the land blessed by fire.

与亚美尼亚民族相比,阿塞拜疆民族的成立相对较晚。在Transcaucasus东部里海沿岸地区,泄漏的天然气在大火中燃烧,形成了类似于火焰山的火焰。在琐罗亚斯德教盛行的波斯,火被认为是神,这个地方的名字被命名为阿塞拜疆,这是一个有火的土地。

The local residents of Azerbaijan were influenced by Persian culture and believed in Zoroastrianism. The ancient Azerbaijani language was produced on the basis of the Persian language, which laid the foundation for the formation of the Azerbaijani nation.

阿塞拜疆的当地居民受到波斯文化的影响,并信仰琐罗亚斯德教。古老的阿塞拜疆语言是在波斯语的基础上产生的,这为阿塞拜疆民族的形成奠定了基础。

In the 7th century AD, the Arabs established an empire and began to expand and spread Islam. In 663 AD, the Persian region was occupied. Under the influence of the Arabs, the Persians and the Azerbaijanis

在公元7世纪,阿拉伯人建立了一个帝国,并开始扩大和传播伊斯兰教。公元663年,波斯地区被占领。在阿拉伯人,波斯人和阿塞拜疆人的影响下

Converted to Islam.

依伊斯兰教。

After the rise of the Arab Empire, most ethnic groups in West Asia, North Africa, and the Caucasus converted to Islam, with the exception of Armenians. After the fall of the Arab Empire, the later Persian Safa Dynasty, Ottoman Empire and other Islamic forces frequently invaded Armenia. By the 16th century, Armenia was divided by Ottoman and Persia.

阿拉伯帝国崛起后,西亚,北非和高加索地区的大多数族裔converted依伊斯兰教,亚美尼亚人除外。阿拉伯帝国沦陷后,后来的波斯萨法王朝,奥斯曼帝国和其他伊斯兰力量经常入侵亚美尼亚。到16世纪,亚美尼亚被奥斯曼帝国和波斯分裂。

Among them, "East Armenia" including the Naka region was occupied by Persia, and the Naka region was incorporated into a province of Persia. The Ottomans occupied western Armenia on the Black Sea coast.

其中,包括纳卡地区在内的“亚美尼亚东部”被波斯占领,纳卡地区并入波斯省。奥斯曼帝国占领了黑海沿岸的亚美尼亚西部。

Both Persia and Ottoman are Islamic countries, so the Armenians who believe in Christianity have become the thorns of the Islamic forces. At that time, Azerbaijanis mainly lived in the plains along the coast of the Caspian Sea, while Armenians mainly lived in the mountains of the Caucasus. In order to suppress the pagan Armenians, Persia encouraged Azerbaijanis who also believed in Islam to migrate to the western mountains.

波斯和奥斯曼帝国都是伊斯兰国家,所以信仰基督教的亚美尼亚人已成为伊斯兰力量的荆棘。当时,阿塞拜疆人主要生活在里海沿岸的平原上,而亚美尼亚人则主要生活在高加索山脉中。为了镇压异教的亚美尼亚人,波斯鼓励了也信仰伊斯兰教的阿塞拜疆人向西部山区迁移。

After hundreds of years of migration, the Azerbaijanis gradually replaced the Armenians and became the main ethnic group in the transition zone from the plain to the mountain (Naka region).

经过数百年的迁徙,阿塞拜疆人逐渐取代了亚美尼亚人,成为从平原到山区(纳卡地区)过渡地区的主要种族。

Beginning in the 17th century, a new player from a major power-Tsarist Russia was added to the southern foot of the Caucasus Mountains. In order to find warm estuary and mountains as a national security barrier, Tsarist Russia began to expand south.

从17世纪开始,来自大国沙皇俄国的新玩家加入了高加索山脉的南麓。为了寻找温暖的河口和山脉作为国家安全的屏障,沙皇俄国开始向南扩展。

At that time, the Black Sea was the inner sea of ​​the Ottoman Empire, and the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea were the barriers of the Persian Empire against the invasion of northern forces. The expansion of Tsarist Russia in this area will inevitably lead to war with the two major Islamic powers of Ottoman and Persia.

当时,黑海是奥斯曼帝国的内海,高加索山脉和里海是波斯帝国抵御北方力量入侵的屏障。沙皇俄国在该地区的扩张将不可避免地导致与奥斯曼帝国和波斯这两个伊斯兰大国的战争。

In order to capture the Black Sea, Tsarist Russia and Ottoman fought the "Russian-Turkish War" for more than two centuries. At the beginning of the 19th century, after six Russian-Turkish wars, Tsarist Russia captured the Crimean Peninsula in the northern Black Sea and Georgia in the Caucasus.

为了占领黑海,沙皇俄国和奥斯曼帝国进行了两个多世纪的“俄土战争”。 19世纪初,在六次俄土战争之后,沙皇俄国占领了黑海北部的克里米亚半岛和高加索地区的乔治亚州。

In order to capture the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea, the "Russian-Polish War" broke out between Tsarist Russia and Persia. The weak Persian Empire was unable to resist, and signed the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and the Treaty of Turkmenistan (1825) with Tsarist Russia, and was forced to convert East Armenia and North Azerbaijan (the prototype of the state of Azerbaijan today) Ceded to Tsarist Russia.

为了占领高加索地区和里海,沙俄和波斯之间爆发了“俄波战争”。疲弱的波斯帝国无法抵抗,与沙皇俄国签署了《古利斯坦条约》(1813年)和《土库曼斯坦条约》(1825年),并被迫改信东亚美尼亚和北阿塞拜疆(今天是阿塞拜疆国的原型)降入沙皇俄国。

After establishing the rule of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, Tsarist Russia began to implement a policy of ethnic separation. Tsarist Russia believes in Christianity, so it chooses to support Armenians who believe in Christianity and suppress Azerbaijanis who believe in Islam.

建立黑海和里海的统治之后,沙皇俄国开始实行种族隔离政策。沙皇俄国信奉基督教,因此选择支持信奉基督教的亚美尼亚人,镇压信奉伊斯兰教的阿塞拜疆人。

At that time, after hundreds of years of emigration, the Naka area had become a major gathering area for Azerbaijanis, but Tsarist Russia encouraged Armenians to move here in large numbers. With the support of Tsarist Russia, they aggressively expelled the Azerbaijanis. Therefore, the ethnic composition of the Naka region has been reversed once again, and Armenians who "go home" gradually replaced the Azerbaijanis and became the main ethnic group in the region.

那时,经过数百年的移民,纳卡地区已成为阿塞拜疆人的主要聚集地,但沙皇俄国鼓励亚美尼亚人大量迁往此地。在沙皇俄国的支持下,他们积极驱逐了阿塞拜疆人。因此,纳卡地区的族裔构成再次发生逆转,“回家”的亚美尼亚人逐渐取代了阿塞拜疆人,成为该地区的主要族裔。

From the perspective of Armenians, this area has been inhabited by Armenians since ancient times, while Azerbaijanis believe that they have lived here for hundreds of years. Armenians have long since abandoned it, and Azerbaijanis are the masters of this place. This is the source of the conflict between the two nations.

从亚美尼亚人的角度来看,该地区自古以来就是亚美尼亚人的居住地,而阿塞拜疆人则认为他们已经在这里生活了数百年。亚美尼亚人早就放弃了它,阿塞拜疆人是这个地方的主人。这是两国之间冲突的根源。

Although Tsarist Russia acquired a large amount of territory through many expansions, the class contradiction between serf owners and serfs was sharp due to the preservation of feudal serfdom. The ethnic and religious elements in Saudi Russia are complex, leading to sharp ethnic and religious contradictions.

尽管沙皇俄国通过许多扩张获得了大量领土,但由于保留了封建农奴制,农奴主与农奴之间的阶级矛盾十分尖锐。沙特俄罗斯的种族和宗教元素复杂,导致尖锐的种族和宗教矛盾。

With class contradictions, ethnic contradictions and religious contradictions intertwined, revolutions broke out in tsarist Russia one after another. In 1904, in order to compete for the warm port of Dalian Port in Northeast China and Lushun, a war broke out between Russia and Japan, and Japan eventually defeated Tsarist Russia.

阶级矛盾,种族矛盾和宗教矛盾交织在一起,沙皇俄国革命相继爆发。 1904年,为了争夺中国东北和旅顺大连港的温暖港口,俄罗斯与日本爆发战争,日本最终击败了沙皇俄国。

The defeat in the war intensified social contradictions in Saudi Russia. The revolution broke out in 1905 and people in the Caucasus also started a vigorous independence movement, but they were all suppressed by Tsarist Russia. In 1914, World War I broke out, and Tsarist Russia joined the Allied Powers to fight. The prolonged war caused the economy to face collapse, and social conflicts intensified again. The February Revolution broke out in Tsarist Russia in February 1917, which overthrew the Tsar. Then in the October Revolution, Soviet power was established and the first socialist country was established.

战争的失败加剧了沙特俄罗斯的社会矛盾。 1905年革命爆发,高加索地区的人民也发起了激烈的独立运动,但他们都被沙皇俄国压制。 1914年,第一次世界大战爆发,沙皇俄国加入了盟军进行战斗。旷日持久的战争使经济面临崩溃,社会矛盾再次加剧。二月革命于1917年2月在沙皇俄国爆发,推翻了沙皇。然后在十月革命中,建立了苏联力量,并建立了第一个社会主义国家。

The regime at that time was facing serious difficulties. The domestic feudal forces and the bourgeoisie furiously counterattacked with the support of the West, and they faced fighting against Germany and Ottoman abroad. In order to withdraw from the war, in January 1918, the new Soviet regime signed the "Brest Peace Treaty" with the Allied Powers, recognizing the independence of the three Transcaucasian countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia).

当时的政权面临着严重的困难。国内的封建势力和资产阶级在西方的支持下疯狂反击,他们在国外与德国和奥斯曼帝国作战。为了退出战争,1918年1月,新的苏维埃政权与盟国签署了《布雷斯特和平条约》,承认了三个高加索国家(亚美尼亚,阿塞拜疆和格鲁吉亚)的独立性。

Later, when the defeat of the Allies was determined, the three Transcaucasian countries established Soviet power with the "help" of Soviet Russia. In 1922, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia joined the Soviet Union as republics.

后亚博最新域名来,在确定盟军战败后,三个高加索国家在苏维埃俄罗斯的“帮助”下建立了苏维埃政权。 1922年,亚美尼亚,阿塞拜疆和格鲁吉亚加入了苏联,成为共和国。

The ethnic and religious composition of the Transcaucasus region is complicated. After the three countries joined the Soviet Union, the locals originally hoped that the Soviet Union could properly solve this problem, but the Soviet Union has intensified ethnic conflicts.

Transcaucasus地区的族裔和宗教构成十分复杂。三个国家加入苏联后,当地人本来希望苏联能够妥善解决这个问题,但苏联加剧了种族冲突。

During the period of Tsarist Russia, the residents of the Naka region have changed from mainly Azerbaijanis to mainly Armenians, and the local residents hope to return to Armenia. In 1921, the Soviet authorities assigned the Naka region to Armenia on the grounds of national self-determination. However, considering that the southwestern part of the Soviet Union faces Islamic forces such as Turkey, assigning Naqa to Armenia will inevitably bury the instability in the border area.

在沙皇俄国时期,纳卡地区的居民已经从主要的阿塞拜疆人变成了主要的亚美尼亚人,当地居民希望返回亚美尼亚。 1921年,苏联当局以民族自决为由将纳卡地区划归亚美尼亚。但是,考虑到苏联西南部面对土耳其等伊斯兰力量,将纳卡派往亚美尼亚将不可避免地将边界地区的动荡掩埋。

Out of the need to appease Islamic forces and stabilize the southern border, the Armenians became victims of the game of great powers due to their small numbers. In 1923, the Soviet Union divided the administrative regions and assigned the Naka region to Azerbaijan, becoming an autonomous prefecture of the "Azerbaijan Soviet Republic". This division aroused strong dissatisfaction among the local Armenians and paved the way for the dispute between the two countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

出于安抚伊斯兰部队和稳定南部边界的需要,亚美尼亚人由于人数众多而成为大国游戏的受害者。 1923年,苏联划分了行政区域,并将纳卡地区划归阿塞拜疆,成为“阿塞拜疆苏维埃共和国”的自治州。这种分裂引起了当地亚美尼亚人的强烈不满,为苏联解体后两国之间的争端铺平了道路。

In the early days of the founding of the Soviet Union, in front of the powerful Soviet authorities, the Asian-African conflict was only temporarily put on hold, but it was never really resolved. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union fell into an economic crisis. Under the impact of the economic crisis, various social crises in the country have also surfaced. In the Transcaucasus region, Yaa clashed over the ownership of the Innaka region.

苏联成立初期,在强大的苏维埃当局面前,亚非冲突只是暂时搁置,但从未真正解决。在1980年代后期,苏联陷入了经济危机。在经济危机的影响下,该国的各种社会危机也已浮出水面。在Transcaucasus地区,Yaa争夺Innaka地区的所有权。

In February 1988, the government of the Naka Autonomous Prefecture requested that the local residents be placed under Armenian jurisdiction on the grounds that Armenians constitute a majority. Armenia agreed to this request, but it angered Azerbaijan.

1988年2月,纳卡自治州政府以亚美尼亚人占多数为由,要求将当地居民置于亚美尼亚管辖之下。亚美尼亚同意了这一要求,但激怒了阿塞拜疆。

At this time the Soviet Union was about to fall apart and was unable to handle the conflict between Asia and Afghanistan. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated and Armenia and Azerbaijan became independent successively. However, the power vacuum left by the disintegration has plunged Transcaucasus, a region with a complex ethnic composition, into turmoil.

这时苏联即将崩溃,无法解决亚洲与阿富汗之间的冲突。 1991年12月25日,苏联解体,亚美尼亚和阿塞拜疆相继独立。然而,解体留下的权力真空使全民高加索地区陷入了混乱。

With the declaration of independence of the Naka region, the Naka issue has also escalated from conflict to war. It was not until May 12, 1994 that the two sides reached a fragile ceasefire agreement under international mediation, but the hostility between them has not been eliminated.

随着纳卡地区宣布独立,纳卡问题也从冲突升级为战争。直到1994年5月12日,双方在国际调解下达成了一项脆弱的停火协议,但双方之间的敌意并未消除。

After the war, the Naka region became neither the territory of Armenia nor the territory of Azerbaijan, but a de facto independent republic was established.

战后,纳卡地区既未成为亚美尼亚领土,也未成为阿塞拜疆领土,但事实上建立了独立共和国。

The residents of Naka are mainly Armenians, and the supporting force behind independence is Armenia. After the war, Armenian troops were still stationed in the Naka region, and the two places used the same currency. Because Armenia is weak in strength and surrounded by Islamic countries, the geological environment is not conducive to recognizing the independence of the Naka Republic, so Armenia chose to default.

纳卡的居民主要是亚美尼亚人,独立背后的支持力量是亚美尼亚。战后,亚美尼亚部队仍驻扎在纳卡地区,两个地方使用相同的货币。由于亚美尼亚实力薄弱且被伊斯兰国包围,因此地质环境不利于承认纳卡共和国的独立性,因此亚美尼亚选择了默认。

From the perspective of Azerbaijan, although the Naka region is still regarded as the territory of Azerbaijan in the world, Azerbaijan has lost actual control over the area. The independence of Naka has undermined the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, and Azerbaijan has never given up on taking it back Efforts in the Naka region.

从阿塞拜疆的角度来看,尽管纳卡地区仍被视为世界上阿塞拜疆的领土,但阿塞拜疆已经失去对该地区的实际控制。纳卡的独立性破坏了阿塞拜疆的主权和领土完整,阿塞拜疆从未放弃过收回其在纳卡地区的努力。

Military wars will bring unacceptable costs to both sides. It is no longer possible for the two countries to resort to war. However, the existence of the Naqqa issue has led to the fact that the two countries are still hostile in various fields. The future of Nakka has become the two countries. Dead knot.

军事战争将给双方带来无法接受的代价。两国不再可能诉诸战争。但是,纳卡问题的存在导致两国仍然在各个领域持敌对态度。纳卡的未来已成为两国。死结。

Until today, the two countries have not established diplomatic relations, the border between the two countries is still closed, and foreign tourists cannot enter another country from one country. The degree of hostility is not only in the economic and political fields, but even more so in the cultural and sports fields. For example, Armenian athletes cannot travel to Azerbaijan to compete.

直到今天,两国尚未建立外交关系,两国边界仍然封闭,外国游客不能从一个国家进入另一国。敌亚博最新消息对程度不仅在经济和政治领域,而且在文化和体育领域更是如此。例如,亚美尼亚运动员不能前往阿塞拜疆参加比赛。

The state of "no war or peace" between Asia and Afghanistan has not only affected the normalization of relations between the two countries, but also affected the peace and stability of the entire Transcaucasus region.

亚洲与阿富汗之间的“没有战争或和平”状态不仅影响了两国关系的正常化,而且还影响了整个高加索地区的和平与稳定。

 
 
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